1. Globe-21Confucius (551-479 BC) believed that learning and wisdom were keys to the path of virtue. True or false: One of his doctrines parallels the golden rule in Western tradition.
  2. In contrast to Confucius, Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) advocated a double standard for sovereigns and subjects in The Prince. He proposed that great leaders should be duplicitous when necessary, because:
    A. Success, as the end, justifies the means.
    B. Political adversaries must be rendered harmless.
    C. Princes should know how to use force when the law won’t work.
    D. All of the above.
  3. Canadian philosopher Herbert Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) was renowned for his theories about media. True or false: He was also famous for his cameo in a Woody Allen film.
  4. Match the philosopher with his country.
    1. Baruch Spinoza A. Scotland
    2. Martin Heidegger B. Germany
    3. David Hume 3. Netherlands
  5. Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) was a Swedish scientist and theologian. True or false: His followers founded a religion based on his precepts.
  6. Japanese philosopher Yukichi Fukuzawa (1835-1901) helped open Japan to Western ideas. True or false: His writings were not popular during his lifetime.
  7. The principles of separation of powers and checks and balances, incorporated into the United States Constitution, were formulated by which French philosopher?
    A. Montesquieu (1689-1755)
    B. Foucault (1926-1984)
    C. Voltaire (1694-1778)
  8. “There are more things in heaven and earth … than are dreamt of in your philosophy.” This line is attributed to:
    A. Jean-Paul Sartre
    B. William Shakespeare
    C. Benjamin Franklin
  9. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) shifted a paradigm. True or false: He proposed that the earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the sun.
  10. Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936) was one of the leading European intellectuals of his time. True or false: Because of his fame, he was never persecuted by the Spanish government.

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  1. True. Confucius’ teachings also emphasized sincerity, justice,courtesy, respect for elders, and ancestor reverence.
  2. D. Benito Mussolini greatly admired Machiavelli, but wouldn’t allow his subjects to read The Prince.
  3. True. He had a walk-on role in Annie Hall.
  4. 1, C; 2, B; 3, A
  5. True. Swedenborgianism, also known as the Church of the New Jerusalem, was founded in Philadelphia in 1784.
  6. False. In 1866, he wrote Japan’s first best-seller book,Conditions in the West.
  7. A.
  8. B. It is a quote from Hamlet Act I, Scene V.
  9. True.
  10. False. He was once exiled, twice fired from the University of Salamanca, and died under house arrest.